This is how a Servo Motor works. Its benefits, disadvantages, and applications.
An electric motor is essential for any electro-mechanical project. The servomotor is often used when the project demands maximum precision. This article will discuss the basics of servomotor, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as how to build a servomotor.
We will also learn why they are essential in robotics and other industrial sectors that require precise motions.
A servo motor can be described as a linear actuator or rotary actuator. This allows precise control of velocity, acceleration, angular and linear position. It is composed of a motor and a sensor that provides position feedback. A sophisticated controller is also required. A dedicated module is often required for use with servomotors.
This is an electric device that can rotate or push an object with great precision. A servomotor is used to rotate an object at a specific angle or distance. It’s a motor that runs through servo mechanisms.
The DC servomotor is one that uses DC power for its supply. If the motor draws its power from an AC source, it is an AC-servo motor. A very powerful servo motor can be made in small, lightweight packages. These features are used in many applications such as toy cars, RC helicopters and aircrafts, robotics, machines, etc.
Construction of Servo Motor
This motor incorporates positional feedback to control rotational speed and position.
The motor is actually a combination of parts:
The normal DC motor- This is responsible for generating motion through its shaft.
Gear reduction unit/gear box
Servo motor power cable
A DC motor is connected to a gear mechanism that provides feedback to a position sensor, which is mainly a potentiometer.
It connects to the central shaft and displays at all times the angle that the motor’s shaft can be accessed.
The motor’s output is delivered via the servo shaft to the servo arms from the gear box, or gear reduction unit. The gear box is made up of gears that can increase or decrease speed and torque.
The standard servomotor uses the plastic gear, while the high-power servomotor uses the metal gear.
The motor’s motion can be controlled by a control circuit that sends electric pulses.
The motor is composed of three wires. A black wire connects to ground. The control unit is connected by a white/yellow wire. A red wire is connected to the power supply.
Advantages of Servo Motor
The driver can increase the current to the motor coil if it is subject to a large load. This will cause the motor to spin more slowly. There is no “out-of-step” condition.
High-speed operation possible
The disadvantages of the Servo Motor
The motor attempts to rotate in accordance with the commands but it lags behind. It is not suitable to control rotation with precision.
The motor’s rotor still moves one pulse when it is stopped. It is therefore not recommended if vibration prevention is required.
Applications of Servo Motor
It is used in applications that require rapid changes in speed, without the motor becoming too hot.
They are used in industries such as packaging, factory automation, material processing, printing converting and assembly lines. Robotics is used in many other applications, including automated manufacturing and CNC machinery.
Radio controlled airplanes are used to control the movement and positioning of elevators.
Robots are popular because of their precise positioning and smooth switching between on-off and off.
Aerospace industry maintains hydraulic fluid in hydraulic systems.
Many radio-controlled toys can be used.
Used in electronic devices like DVDs and Blue ray Disc players for the extension or replay of disc trays.
Used in automobiles to maintain vehicle speed
What Types of Servo Motors Are There?
One of the most widely used variable speed drives worldwide in manufacturing, process automation and building technologies is the servomotor. These motors are designed for motion control applications that require exceptional performance, high accuracy positioning and quick reversing. This blog will discuss the various types of servomotors that can be used in different fields.
What is a Servo Motor?
A rotary actuator, or linear actuator, is the servomotor. This motor allows precise control of velocity, acceleration, angular and linear position. It is composed of a motor and a sensor that provides position feedback. A sophisticated controller is also required. Although the working principle of both the servomotor and electromagnetic motor is the same, the structure and function are different. The standard servomotor uses a plastic gear, while the high-power servomotor uses a metal gear.
Because of the advancements in the microprocessor, power transistor and high precision control, they are suitable for many applications. They include power, ground, control wires. These motors can be used for a variety of purposes based on their size and shape. The most common servomotor is the RC servomotor, which is most commonly used for hobby purposes. This motor is characterized by simplicity, affordability, and consistency.
There are generally two types of motors, depending on how the power is supplied. These are AC servomotors and DC servomotors.
These are the types of servomotors.
1. AC Servo Motor
An encoder is part of an ac-servo motor. This encoder is used by the controller to provide feedback and closed loop control. These motors are superior in design to achieve greater torque. An AC servomotor is used in automation, robotics, and many other applications.
Motor for positional rotation
The output shaft of a positional rotation motor rotates at 180 degrees. This motor is mainly composed of physical stops that are placed in the gear mechanism to stop it from rotating outside to protect its rotation sensor. This motor is used in robotics, aircraft, toys and controlled cars among many other applications.
Continuous rotation servo motor
The common positional rotation and continuous rotation servomotor are very similar. It can move in any direction it pleases. Instead of setting the static position of a servo, the control signal is used to determine the speed and direction of rotation. There are many possible commands that can cause the servo’s rotation to go clockwise or anticlockwise. It can also change its speed depending on the command signal. You can use this type of motor in a radar dish to ride a robot, or as a drive motor for a mobile robot.
Linear Servo motor
Linear servomotor is very similar to positional rotation motor. The extra gears allow it to alter the o/p between circular and back-and-forth. Although they are difficult to find, you may be able to find these servomotors at hobby shops where they can be used as actuators in higher-level model planes.
2. DC Servo Motor
The DC servomotor generally includes a separate DC source in the field of armature winding. You can control the motor by controlling the field current and the armature current. Both armature control as well as field control offer benefits. The small armature reactance allows for a fast and precise response to start or end commands. They are used in a variety of devices and numerically controlled equipment.
Series servo motor
Series servo motors have high starting torque and draw huge current. This motor has a very low speed regulation. You can turn the motor around by using split-series field winding to reverse the field voltagepolarity.
Split-series servo motor
Split series motors can be used as a field-controlled motor that is individually energized. The motor armature provides a steady current supply. The common curve of this motor is the torque speed. This motor has a high stall torque and a rapid decline in torque through amplifying its speed.
Motor for Shunt Control
Two windings make up the shunt motor’s shunt control motor. These are the armature and field windings. The stator houses the field windings, while the armature winds are on the machine’s rotor. The two windings connected to the DC source are parallel in a DC shuntmotor.
Permanent Magnet Shunt Motor
This motor is permanent excitation and can be used wherever there is a magnet. Motor performance is identical to an armature-controlled permanent field motor.
This article is about different types of servomotors. This motor is part of servomechanism. They are usually paired with an encoder to provide speed feedback, positioning and fault correction, as well as activating the supply signal.
This is how a Servo Motor works. Its benefits, disadvantages, and applications.